What are PMA and PMMA?
Paramethoxyamphetamine (PMA) and paramethoxymethamphetamine (PMMA) are empathogens with effects similar to MDMA also known as ecstasy.1 In fact, most people who take PMA or PMMA think they are taking MDMA. However, drugs sold as MDMA may not contain any MDMA. They can be a mix of amphetamines, PMA, PMMA, ketamine, NBOMe, methylone or other substances.
This is potentially harmful as PMA and PMMA have more toxic effects (and are less euphoric) than MDMA. It also takes longer to feel these effects, so people may take another pill in the mistaken belief that the first has not worked, sometimes resulting in overdose. PMA and PMMA have been around since the 1970s1 and have been associated with a number of deaths over the years worldwide including in Australia. In 2012 and 2013 there was a spike in deaths directly attributable to PMA or PMMA in England and Wales.2
How are they used?
PMA and PMMA are usually swallowed and can be snorted or injected.
Death, Dr Death, Pink Ecstasy, Red Mitsubishi, Killer, Chicken Powder, Chicken Yellow
Effects of PMA and PMMA
There is no safe level of drug use. Use of any drug always carries some risk. It’s important to be careful when taking any kind type of drug.
PMA and PMMA affect everyone differently, but effects may include:
- moderate stimulation
- seeing colours and shapes
- heightened senses (sight, hearing and touch)
- dry mouth and dehydration
- Increased bodily temperature – The most common cause of death from PMA is due to severe hyperthermia.
- Increased perspiration teeth grinding
- increased sweating
- increased heartbeat and blood pressure
- difficulty breathing
- irregular eye movements
- muscle spasms
- decreased appetite
- nausea and vomiting (common at any dose)
- Seizures – (more common with PMMA than with almost any other substance).3-6
If you take a large amount or have a strong batch, you could overdose. Call an ambulance straight away by dialling triple zero (000) if you have any of these symptoms (ambulance officers don’t need to involve the police):
- kidney failure
- extremely high body temperature
- convulsions and seizures
High doses of PMA or PMMA are potentially lethal.
Long term effects
The long-term effects of PMA and PMMA have not yet been established but some research indicates they may have similar long-term effects to ecstasy.8